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Mechanisms of Vertical Integration


National — sub-national linkages

For the preparation of the 2002 NSDS as well as its 2007 Implementation Report to the EU, representatives of local authorities, civil society, academia, private sector, NGOs etc actively participated in general or thematic workshops.

The  difficult financial situation has required the promotion  of a new model of development that will serve citizens’ needs while in parallel respecting the environment as a reserve for development.To this end the new model, in the form of a green economy in the context of sustainable development, provides the ability to address the multifaceted current challenges in the financial, energy, food and environmental sectors, while fostering sustainable livelihoods and social cohesion.To name an example, the promotion of renewable energy sources, such as photovoltaic and wind turbines have been driven. In parallel the new model serves the fulfillment of  requirements of the aquis communautaire in the environmental sector.

As mentioned above, since 2009 the Government's structure, objectives and priorities have been redefined and redesigned in order to foster actual development based on the principles of “Green Growth”, while adapted to the constaints and international obligations .

To this end, MEECC has drawn up a  revised National Strategy on “Green Growth” for growth and sustainable development respecting the environment, while responding to actual needs with practical means. This Strategy is also linked/inspired of to the recent Europe 2020 EU Strategy.

More specifically, it aims at:

·         Increase of development investments

·         Reforming the production basis of the economy and reinvigorating economic activity

·         Balancing rural development

·         Creating new jobs and reducing unemployment 

Its principles and requirements include:

·         Investment in education

·         Investment in knowledge-base expansion

·         Investment in innovation

·         Investment in new technologies

The Strategy introduces a cross-sectoral approach. The priority sectors encompassed include:

·         Agriculture

·         Tourism

·         Manufacturing

·         Construction / infrastructure development

·         Energy /promotion of renewable energy

The thematic pillars of the Strategy are four and include:

  • Addressing climate change challenges and transition to a competitive low-carbon economy (e.g. by promoting the penetration of RES, energy saving and energy demand management, increase of energy efficiency etc);
  • Sustainable management of natural resources (e.g. integrated management of ecosystems and biodiversity, water and forest resources, risk planning and management, rehabilitation and landscape preservation);
  • Improvement of quality of life based on an environmental-friendly approach  (e.g. improvement of social and productivity cohesion, revitalizing of rural and degraded urban areas, sustainable mobility, integrated waste management etc);
  • Reinforcement of institutional tools and mechanisms for environmental governance (e.g. reinforcement of inspection instruments, improvement of public access to environmental information, education and awareness raising etc).

The Law 4014/2011 considerably contributes to the implementation of the above-mentioned aims through the procedural simplification of the environmental permitting process of projects and activities.

More specifically, Law 4014/2011 aims at accelerating environmental permitting and licensing procedures, decentralizing competencies for environmental licencing, reducing bureaucratic and administrative burdens, enhancing transparency and promoting stakeholder participation in decision making. To this end, the following steps/tools are established:


1. Standardisation of the administrative procedure for the approval, renewal or amendment of the decision setting the environmental terms for the operation of activities and projects.

2. Minimisation of the number of competent Ministries involved in the permitting procedure.

3. New classification of projects and activities based on their environmental impact and introduction of Standardised Environmental Specifications for the permitting of low-impact installations.

4. Improvement of the administrative structure of environmental licensing services by establishing a single licensing authority at central level under the Ministry of Environment.

5. Introduction of dispute resolution councils dealing with particular cases, both at central/Ministry of Environment level, as well as at regional level.

6. Establishment of a Digital Environmental Registry enhancing public access to environmental information. 

Moreover, at the time being , it is ongoing the evaluation and revision of the regional spatial plans of the 12 Regions in Greece (except Attica).

EU linkages

Greece adopted the European Union’s ten-year growth strategy (EU 2020). The aim of this Strategy is to  address the shortcomings of the European growth model and create the conditions for a different type of growth that is smarter (through the development of knowledge and innovation), more sustainable (based on a greener, more resource efficient and more competitive economy) and more inclusive (aimed at strengthening employment and social and territorial cohesion).

For the preparation of the NSRF 2014-2020, the Greek Partnership Agreement has incorporated the Europe 2020 Strategy’s targets related to:

  • 75% of the population aged 20-64 should be employed.
  • 3% of the EU’s GDP should be invested in R&D.
  • The «20-20-20» climate / energy targets should be met (including an increase to 30% of emissions reduction if the conditions are right).
  • The share of early school leavers should be 10% and at least 40% of the younger generation should have a tertiary degree.
  • 20 million less people should be at risk of poverty.

These EU Strategy targets translated into the 11 thematic objectives of the Common Provision Regulation (1303/2013) and integrated into the Greek Cohesion Policy 2014-2020.

2009 Review of the EU Sustainable Development Strategy (EU SDS)


This Country Profile has been last updated on: Thursday, 31 January 2019

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