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Links and Documents

This section provides resources (website links and documents) on the following issues:


Guideline documents

SD strategies general (in descending chronological order):

UN: Guidance in preparing a National Sustainable Development Strategy (2002)

OECD - IIED: Sustainable Development Strategies: A Resource Book (2002)
PDF (1.8 MB)

UN: Guidelines for Developing a National Programme of Indicators of Sustainable Development (2001)

OECD: The DAC Guidelines - Strategies for sustainable development. Guidance for development co-operation (2001)

OECD: National Strategies For  Sustainable Development, a Guide To Key Issues And Methods For Analysis. A prompt for status review and analysis (2000)

OECD: Improving Policy Coherence and Integration for Sustainable Development: A checklist

Evaluation and review of SD strategies:

European Commission: Peer Review Improvement through Mutual Exchange on Sustainable Development: A guidebook for peer reviews of national sustainable development strategies (2006)

Methodology Paper of the French SD strategy peer review (2005)

Office of the Government of the Czech Republic: Manual for planning and evaluation of Sustainable Development at the regional level (2006)

Policy documents

National SD strategies (in alphabetical order):


The 2002 NSTRAT document (English version) can be downloaded here: 'A Sustainable Future for Austria' (2002)


Federal Plan for Sustainable Development 2004-2008

The full list(s) of NSDS objectives as identified by a study commissioned by Eurostat can be downloaded here: Federal Plan for SD 2004-2008 - Objectives

Vision 2050: A long-term strategy for Flanders


The full list(s) of NSDS objectives as identified by a study commissioned by Eurostat can be downloaded here:

Federal Plan for SD 2004-2008 - Objectives



NSDS can be downloaded on the website of the Ministry: Strategy for Sustainable Development of the Republic of Croatia

SD objectives listed in the NSDS: Croatian NSDS is focusing on long-term action in the following eight key areas:


  1. encouraging population growth in the Republic of Croatia
  2. environment and natural resources
  3. promoting sustainable production and consumption
  4. ensuring social and territorial cohesion and justice
  5. ensuring energy independence and increasing the efficiency of energy use
  6. strengthening public health
  7. interconnectedness of the Republic of Croatia
  8. protection of the Adriatic Sea, coastal area and islands


These are the eight key challenges of sustainable development that also serve as the basis for strategic directions of the development of the Republic of Croatia. Each one of them is further explained and elaborated in the overall objective or overall objectives for that area, which is/are in turn elaborated in concrete measures that can be seen in NSDS.NSDS also points out that the efficient state, knowledge-based society / education for sustainable development, research and development and mitigation and adaptation to climate change are the preconditions for further development. Of these, the education for sustainable development is especially singled out as the precondition for sustainable development and as such considered to be a cross-sectoral key challenge.


Cyprus Sustainable Development Strategy 2007


Czech Republic:

Strategic Framework for Sustainable Development in the Czech Republic (2010) -Office of the Government of the Czech Republic:


"Vækst med Omtanke" (2009)

The current set of sustainable development indicators connected to the former Danish National Strategy for Sustainable Development (2002):æredygtig+udvikling/Dansk/Indikator/IndikatorerBU.htm


'Sustainable Estonia 21' (2005)

The full list(s) of NSDS objectives as identified by a study commissioned by Eurostat can be downloaded here: NSDS Objectives (2005).


"The Finland we want by 2050 ─ Society’s Commitment to Sustainable Development"


La Stratégie Nationale de Développement Durable 2010-2013 (in French)

The French Sustainable Development Strategy (in english)

La estrategia francesa de desarollo sostenible 2010-2013 (in spanish)


The new GSDS has been adopted by the Cabinet in January 2017.


Summary in six UN languages: (still valid – no change necessary)


The GSDS has been updated in December 2018.

Further information about the SD strategy process   



Strategy for Sustainable Development: Perspectives for Germany (2002) ( Report 2004    Progress Report 2008

    Progress Report 2012



Peer Review 2018 (document in German and English)






    Indicator Report 2014


Indicator Report 2016


Indicator Report 2018 (in German)





    “Gemeinsam Verantwortung wahrnehmen und Zukunft Gestalten”/”Sharing responsibility – shaping the future together”(April 2017)


National Strategy for Sustainable Development (2002) (English executive summary)


National Framework Strategy on Sustainable Development :


'Welfare for the Future' (2002)


1.    Our Sustainable Future (2012) – Main Document Environment/SustainableDevelopment/PublicationsDocuments/
2.    Our Sustainable Future (2012) – Summary Environment/SustainableDevelopment/PublicationsDocuments/
3.    Our Sustainable Future (2012) – Acronyms Environment/SustainableDevelopment/PublicationsDocuments/
4.    Green Public Procurement (23012) Environment/SustainableDevelopment/GreenPublicProcurement/PublicationsDocuments/
5.    'Sustainable Development - A Strategy for Ireland' (1997)
6.    'Making Ireland's Development Sustainable: review, assessment and future action' (2002)


    'Strategia d'azione ambientale per lo Sviluppo Sostenibile' (2002) (in Italian)


    'Strategy for Sustainable Development of Latvia' (2010)

    The full list(s) of NSDS objectives can be downloaded here: NSDS browser (2010).


    National Strategy for Sustainable Development


    National Plan for Sustainable Development (2010) (in German)


    'A Sustainable Development Strategy for the Maltese Islands 2007-2016' (2006)



    First annual report on implementation of NSSD:

    Second annual report on implementation of NSSD:

    Third annual report on implementation of NSSD:

    Forth annual report on implementation of NSSD:

    Fifth annual report on implementation of NSSD:

    Millennium Development Goals:

    Report on Millenium Development Goals in Montenegro 2010-2013:


    The link to the new Strategy is


    Norway´s Strategy for Sustainable Development (2007)



    'Estratégia Nacional de Desenvolvimento Sustentável' (2007) (in Portuguese)


    National Sustainable Development Strategy - 'Romania 2013-2020-2030'


    Web presentation of the project "Sustainable Development of Serbia. Our Common Future - National Sustainable Development Strategy": Full version (English) | Summary (English)






    Spanish Sustainable Development Strategy (2007)


    'Strategic Challenges - A Further Elaboration of the Swedish Strategy for Sustainable Development' (2006)


    Sustainable Development Strategy 2016-2019

    The Netherlands:

    United Kingdom:

    "Mainstreaming sustainable development - The Government’s vision and what this means in practice”. 

    EU SDS and other EU SD policy documents (in descending chronological order):

    Progress Report on the Sustainable Development Strategy 2007
    PDFCommunication from the Commission
    PDFAccompanying document (Commission Staff working document)

    Renewed EU SDS (adopted version June 9)

    Presidency Conclusions Brussels European Council 15/16 June 2006

    Motion for a Resolution on the revised sustainable development strategy
    EP Session Document June 7, 2006

    The 2005 Review of the EU Sustainable Development Strategy: Initial Stocktaking and Future Orientations" (2005)

    Draft Declaration on Guiding Principles for Sustainable Development COM(2005)

    Sustainable Development Indicators to monitor the implementation of the EU Sustainable Development Strategy (2005)

    Summary report of the Strategic Evaluation of Approaches to Integrating Sustainability into Community Policies (2004)[...]

    Report: National Sustainable Development Strategies in the European Union - A first analysis by the European Commission (2004)

    Annex to the Report: Country Profiles

    The World Summit on Sustainable Development one year on: implementing our commitments (2003)

    Towards a global partnership for Sustainable Development (2002)

    Implementing Agenda 21: The EU's record (2002)

    Consultation paper for the preparation of the European Union Strategy for Sustainable Development (2001)

    A sustainable Europe for a better world: A European strategy for Sustainable Development (2001)

    Other relevant EU policy documents (in descending chronological order):

    European Council: Presidency Conclusions - Brussels European Council, 8/9 March 2007

    European Council: Presidency Conclusions - Brussels European Council, June 2005

    Aalborg commitments (2004)

    European Council: Presidency Conclusions - Brussels European Council, March 2003

    European Council: Presidency Conclusions - Gothenburg European Council, 15 and 16 June 2001

    The Sixth Environmental Action Programme: Environment 2010: Our future, our choice (2001)

    European Council: Presidency Conclusions - Lisbon European Council, 23 and 24 March 2000,

    The Lisbon Strategy (2000)

    The Treaty of Amsterdam (1997)

    International SD policy documents (in descending chronological order):

    Johannesburg Summit 2002: National Implementation of Agenda 21. A Summary;

    Johannesburg Declaration on Sustainable Development: From our origins to the future (2002)

    Johannesburg Plan of Implementation (2002)

    "Aarhus Convention": Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-Making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters (1998)

    Rio Declaration on Environment and Development (1992)

    Agenda 21 Action Programme (1992)

    Supra-national SD strategy processes (in alphabetical order):

    Agenda 21 for the Baltic Sea Region - Baltic 21

    Mediterrean Strategy for Sustainable Development (2005)

    Nordic Strategy for Sustainable Development (2005)

    Evaluations and reviews of SD strategies


    Evaluation Study on the Implementation of Austria's Sustainable Development Strategy (2005) (in German only)


    Belgian SD Reports (English summaries and French full text versions)


    The French National Strategy for Sustainable Development: Report on a Peer Review and Shared Learning Process (2005)


    Final Report on the Evaluation of the Swiss Federal Council's Sustainable Development Strategy (2006)
    PDFFinal Report (german)
    PDFSynthesis Report (german)
    PDFAnnex (german)

    Studies on SD strategies and related features (in chronological order)

    Göll, E. & Thio, S.L. (2008) 'Institutions for a sustainable development – experiences from EU countries' in Environment, Development and Sustainability, Vol. 10, No. 1, February 2008, pp. 69-88.

    van de Kerk, Geurt & Manuel, Arthur (2008): A comprehensive index for a sustainable society: The SSI – the Sustainable Society Index. PDFPDF (2,51 MB)

    van de Kerk, Geurt & Manuel, Arthur (2010) Development towards a Sustainable Society - The Netherlands 1975 – 2008: Including a comparison with the developments in Finland over the same period, Sustainable Society Foundation, June 2010,

    Alfsen, Knut & Moe, Thorvald (2008): Measuring Sustainable Development. Ecological Economics (manuscript draft). PDFPDF (266 kB)

    Special Issue of European Environment Vol. 17, Issue 3 (May/June 2007): Sustainable Development Strategies in Europe: Taking Stock 20 years after the Brundtland Report;

    Niestroy, I. (EEAC) (2007): Stimulating informed debate – Sustainable Development Councils in EU Member States. A compilation of tasks, capacities, and best practice. PDFPDF (299 kB)

    Special Issue of Natural Resource Forum Vol. 30, Issue 2 (May 2006): National Sustainable Development Strategies;

    Christian Baumgartner, Torsten Eser, Bernadette Schausberger, Silvia Stuppäck (2006). Sustainability Strategies in the European Union and Options for Underpinning them in the National Parliaments, Vienna: Forum Sustainable Austria,

    Dalal-Clayton, B. & Bass, S. (2006) A Review of Monitoring Mechanisms for National Sustainable Development Strategies, London: IIED, Report prepared for the OECD,

    Cook, Graeme (2006): Sustainable Development – Scrutiny of Legislation. SPICe Briefing 06/75. The Scottish Parliament.

    OECD (2006): Good practices in the National Sustainable Development Strategies of OECD countries. PDFPDF (115 kB)

    Swanson, D., Pintér, L., Bergha, F., Volkery, A., Jacob, K. (2004) National Strategies for Sustainable Development: Challenges, Approaches and Innovations in Strategic and Co-ordinated Action. Based on a 19-country Analysis. Winnipeg: International Institute for Sustainable Development,

    Working Group on Environmental Auditing (2004) Sustainable Development: The Role of Supreme Audit Institutions.

    Overview of SD strategies in Europe by the European Commission (2004)

    OECD (2002): Governance for Sustainable Development. Five OECD case studies. PDFPDF (2,22 MB)


    EU websites on SD (in alphabetical order):

    European Commission's Environment DG
    The Environment DG is one of 36 Directorates-General (DGs) and specialised services which make up the European Commission. Its main role is to initiate and define new environmental legislation and to ensure that measures, which have been agreed, are actually put into practice in the Member States.

    European Environment Agency (EEA)
    The European Environment Agency aims to support sustainable development and to help achieve significant and measurable improvement in Europe's environment through the provision of timely, targeted, relevant and reliable information to policy making agents and the public.

    European Environmental Bureau (EBB)
    The Mission of the EEB is to become an effective instrument in visibly improving EU's environmental policies and realizing sustainable development by effectively integrating environmental objectives in horizontal and sectoral policies of the EU as well as ensuring compliance with effective strategies to realise these objectives.

    Sustainable Development website of DG Environment

    UN and OECD websites on SD (in alphabetical order):

    Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's (OECD) website on sustainable development
    Most OECD activities relate to sustainable development, from climate change analysis to development co-operation to corporate social responsibility. On this website, there are links to a wealth of projects and information which illuminate certain dimensions of sustainable development.,2686,en_2649_37425_1_1_1_1_37425,00.html

    OECD Sustainable Development Statistics,2643,en_2649_37425_1_119656_1_1_37425,00.html

    United Nations Division for Sustainable Development
    The Division for Sustainable Development provides leadership and is an authoritative source of expertise within the United Nations system on sustainable development. It promotes sustainable development as the substantive secretariat to the UN Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD) and through technical cooperation and capacity building at international, regional and national levels

    United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP)
    UNEP's mission is to provide leadership and encourage partnership in caring for the environment by inspiring, informing, and enabling nations and peoples to improve their quality of life without compromising that of future generations

    United Nations Sustainable Development Indicators

    Other websites related to SD: international NGO's, partnerships, initiatives (in alphabetical order)

    Council of European Municipalities and Regions
    CEMR works to promote a united Europe that is based on local and regional self government and democracy. To achieve this goal it endeavours to shape the future of Europe by enhancing the local and regional contribution, to influence European law and policy, to exchange experience at local and regional level and to cooperate with partners in other parts of the world. CEMR works in many fields of activity such as regional policy, transport, the environment, equal opportunities, governance and sustainable development.

    European Environment and Sustainable Development Advisory Councils (EEAC)
    The EEAC network is a collaboration between the councils set up by European governments to provide independent, scientifically based advice on the environment and sustainable development.

    The network is a powerful tool for sharing information and experience across Europe. It also aims, where appropriate, to exert an influence on policy at EU level. Co-operation between advisory councils under the EEAC network started in 1993. More than 30 councils from 16 European countries now participate in the network. The individual councils are statutory bodies with the mission to advise national and regional governments in the above mentioned and related policy fields and/or to provide a dialogue on sustainable development between stakeholders.

    European Partners for the Environment
    EPE is a multi-stakeholder forum which builds the ground for consensus on sustainability, on which members can more confidently plan actions. EPE provides insight and practical guidance on how co-operation among partners produces results that meet the goals of sustainable development.

    Global Reporting Initiative
    The Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) is a multi-stakeholder process and independent institution whose mission is to develop and disseminate globally applicable Sustainability Reporting Guidelines.

    International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives (ICLEI)
    The International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives (ICLEI) is the international environmental agency for local governments. Its mission is to build and serve a worldwide movement of local governments to achieve tangible improvements in global environmental and sustainable development conditions through cumulative local actions.

    Northern Alliance for Sustainability
    Northern Alliance for Sustainability [ANPED] is an alliance of NGOs working together for sustainable development in the northern hemisphere. ANPED works to empower Northern civil society in creating and protecting sustainable communities and societies world-wide. They do this by building capacity among Northern civil society organisations through sharing of information, knowledge, and skills; and enabling informed and effective democratic participation by civil society in local, national, regional and international decision-making on sustainable development policy and processes.

    Stakeholder Forum for a Sustainable Future
    Stakeholder Forum for a Sustainable Future is an international multi-stakeholder organisation working on sustainable development; supporting the increased involvement of stakeholders in international and national governance processes. The organisation played a key role in the preparations for and follow-up to the World Summit on Sustainable Development. It is the lead organisation in the development and facilitating of multi-stakeholder processes for sustainable development.

    Sustainable Development International
    Sustainable Development International aims to provide publishing services for business to raise awareness about CSR in practice to influence effective sustainable development policy.

    Sustainable Development Online
    The role of Sustainable Development Online (SDO) is to provide access to significant web sites built by organisations supporting the move towards SD

    World Business Council for SD
    The World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) brings together some 180 international companies in a shared commitment to sustainable development through economic growth, ecological balance and social progress. Their mission is to provide business leadership as a catalyst for change toward sustainable development, and to support the business license to operate, innovate and grow in a world increasingly shaped by sustainable development issues.

    Sectoral policies


    Policy recommendations and briefing sheets elaborated in the course of the ALARM biodiversity project (EU 6th Framework Programme): PDF Policy recommendations (ZIP, 210 kB); PDF Briefing sheets (ZIP, 1 MB)


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